([December] 2005)

Marvel, 2005 Series
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Volume:
1
Price:
49.99 USD; 80.00 CAD
Pages:
288
Indicia / Colophon Publisher:
Marvel Publishing, Inc.
Brand:
Marvel [white on red]
ISBN:
0-7851-1884-5 Search at WorldCat
Barcode:
978078511884854999
Editing:
Mark D. Beazley (Collection Editor); Jennifer Gr├╝nwald (Assistant Editor); Michael Short (Assistant Editor); Jeff Youngquist (Senior Editor, Special Projects); Cory Sedlmeier (Masterworks Editor)
Color:
Color
Dimensions:
7.25" x 10.5"
Paper Stock:
Glossy
Binding:
Hardcover with dustjacket

Issue Notes

This issue has variants.

Reprints All-Winners Comics (Marvel, 1941 Series) #1-4.
Color reconstruction: Jerron Quality Color.
Art reconstruction: Greg Theakston


[no title indexed] (Table of Contents)

Whizzer; Human Torch; Bucky; Captain America; Sub-Mariner; Toro; Destroyer / cover / 1 page (report information)

Pencils:
Al Avison (signed)
Inks:
Al Avison (signed)
Colors:
Jerron Quality Color
Letters:
typeset

Genre:
Superhero
Characters:
Whizzer; Human Torch; Bucky; Captain America; Sub-Mariner; Toro; Destroyer
Reprints:

All Winners (Table of Contents)

Whizzer; Human Torch; Bucky; Captain America; Sub-Mariner; Toro; Destroyer / illustration / 1 page (report information)

Script:
?
Pencils:
Al Avison
Inks:
Al Avison
Colors:
Jerron Quality Color
Letters:
?

Genre:
superhero
Characters:
Whizzer; Human Torch; Bucky; Captain America; Sub-Mariner; Toro; Destroyer

Indexer Notes

Characters from the cover of All-Winners Comics #4 (Marvel, 1941 Series).

Marvel Masterworks Credits/Contents (Table of Contents)

credits / 2 pages (report information)

Script:
?
Letters:
typeset

Introduction (Table of Contents)

foreword, introduction, preface, afterword / 3 pages (report information)

Script:
Roy Thomas (signed); Greg Theakston
Letters:
typeset

[All-Winners Comics #1] (Table of Contents)

Human Torch; Angel; Captain America; Sub-Mariner; Black Marvel / cover reprint (on interior page) / 1 page (report information)

Script:
?
Pencils:
Alex Schomburg
Inks:
Alex Schomburg
Colors:
Jerron Quality Color
Letters:
typeset
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Genre:
superhero
Characters:
Human Torch; Toro; Angel; Captain America; Bucky; Sub-Mariner [Namor]; Black Marvel
Reprints:

All Winners Vol.1, No.1 Contents (Table of Contents)

credits / 1 page (report information)

Script:
?
Pencils:
?
Inks:
?
Letters:
typeset
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Characters:
Captain America; Sub-Mariner [Namor]; Angel; Black Marvel; Human Torch; Bucky; Toro
Reprints:

Carnival of Fiends (Table of Contents)

Human Torch / comic story / 12 pages (report information)

Script:
Carl Burgos
Pencils:
Carl Burgos (signed)
Inks:
Carl Burgos (signed)
Colors:
Jerron Quality Color
Letters:
?
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Genre:
superhero
Characters:
Human Torch [Jim Hammond]; Toro [Thomas Raymond]; Matzu (introduction); Ku-Shi (introduction)
Reprints:

The Order of the Hood (Table of Contents)

Black Marvel / comic story / 12 pages (report information)

Script:
Stan Lee (signed)
Pencils:
Al Avison (signed)
Inks:
Al Gabriele (signed)
Colors:
Jerron Quality Color
Letters:
?
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Genre:
superhero
Characters:
Black Marvel [Dan Lyons]; Pat Casey; Mary Nash
Reprints:

The Case of the Hollow Men (Table of Contents)

Captain America / comic story / 13 pages (report information)

Script:
Joe Simon
Pencils:
Jack Kirby
Inks:
Joe Simon
Colors:
Jerron Quality Color
Letters:
?
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Genre:
superhero
Characters:
Captain America [Steve Rogers]; Bucky [James Barnes]
Reprints:

You Can't Beat the Best! (Table of Contents)

Captain America; Human Torch / promo (ad from the publisher) / 1 page (report information)

Script:
?
Pencils:
?
Inks:
?
Colors:
Jerron Quality Color
Letters:
?
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Genre:
superhero
Characters:
Captain America; Human Torch
Reprints:

All Winners (Table of Contents)

Angel; Black Marvel; Human Torch; Captain America; Sub-Mariner / text story / 2 pages (report information)

Script:
Stan Lee (signed)
Pencils:
Ed Winiarski [as Win] (signed)
Inks:
Ed Winiarski [as Win] (signed)
Colors:
Jerron Quality Color
Letters:
typeset
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Genre:
superhero
Characters:
Angel; Black Marvel; Toro; Human Torch; Captain America; Bucky; Sub-Mariner; Johnny Blake
Reprints:

The Sub-Mariner (Table of Contents)

Sub-Mariner / comic story / 12 pages (report information)

Script:
Bill Everett
Pencils:
Bill Everett (signed)
Inks:
Bill Everett (signed)
Colors:
Jerron Quality Color
Letters:
?
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Genre:
superhero
Characters:
Sub-Mariner [Namor]
Reprints:

The Case of the Mad Gargoyle (Table of Contents)

Angel / comic story / 12 pages (report information)

Script:
Paul Gustavson
Pencils:
Paul Gustavson
Inks:
Paul Gustavson
Colors:
Jerron Quality Color
Letters:
?
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Genre:
superhero
Characters:
Angel [Thomas Halloway]; Gargoyle
Reprints:

Captain America Wants You (Table of Contents)

Captain America / promo (ad from the publisher) / 1 page (report information)

Script:
?
Pencils:
Jack Kirby ?
Inks:
Joe Simon ?
Letters:
?
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Characters:
Captain America; Bucky
Synopsis:
Call for membership for the Sentinels of Liberty.
Reprints:

[All-Winners Comics #2] (Table of Contents)

Human Torch; Captain America; Sub-Mariner / cover reprint (on interior page) / 1 page (report information)

Script:
?
Pencils:
Jack Binder ?
Inks:
Jack Binder ?
Colors:
Jerron Quality Color
Letters:
?
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Genre:
superhero
Characters:
Human Torch; Sub-Mariner [Namor]; Captain America [Steve Rogers]; Destroyer; Bucky [James Barnes]; Toro; Whizzer
Reprints:

[Captain America Comics] (Table of Contents)

Captain America / promo (ad from the publisher) / 1 page (report information)

Script:
?
Pencils:
Jack Kirby
Inks:
Joe Simon
Letters:
?
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Genre:
superhero
Characters:
Captain America; Red Skull; Bucky
Reprints:

Carnival of Death! (Table of Contents)

Human Torch / comic story / 12 pages (report information)

Script:
Carl Burgos
Pencils:
Carl Burgos?
Inks:
Carl Burgos ?; ?
Colors:
Jerron Quality Color
Letters:
?
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Genre:
superhero
Characters:
Human Torch [Jim Hammond]; Toro [Thomas Raymond]; V: Howe (intro); Jimmy Mack (death); Price
Synopsis:
Human Torch and Toro solve the murder of Jimmy Mack.
Reprints:

The Strange Case of the Malay Idol (Table of Contents)

Captain America / comic story / 12 pages (report information)

Script:
Jack Kirby; Joe Simon
Pencils:
Jack Kirby; Al Avison ?
Inks:
Joe Simon; Al Gabriele ?
Colors:
Jerron Quality Color
Letters:
?
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Genre:
superhero
Characters:
Captain America [Steve Rogers]; Bucky [James Barnes]; Colonel Carter (intro) V: Kuoli [Kurt Mueller] (intro, death)
Synopsis:
Captain America and Bucky crash on an island in the Pacific while escorting Colonel Carter to an important meeting.
Reprints:

Hold Your Breath! (Table of Contents)

promo (ad from the publisher) / 1 page (report information)

Script:
?
Pencils:
?
Inks:
?
Colors:
Jerron Quality Color
Letters:
?
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Synopsis:
Ad for USA Comics #2.
Reprints:

Bombs of Doom! (Table of Contents)

Destroyer / comic story / 12 pages (report information)

Script:
Stan Lee ?
Pencils:
Jack Binder (signed)
Inks:
Jack Binder (signed)
Colors:
Jerron Quality Color
Letters:
?
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Genre:
superhero
Characters:
Destroyer [Keen Marlow]; Florence Von Banger; Professor Herman Berg; V: Adolf Hitler; Rudolf Hess (I)
Reprints:

Winners All (Table of Contents)

text story / 2 pages (report information)

Script:
Stan Lee
Pencils:
Jack Kirby (illo)
Inks:
Jack Kirby (illo)
Colors:
Jerron Quality Color
Letters:
typeset
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Genre:
superhero
Characters:
Whizzer; Destroyer; Human Torch; Captain America; Sub-Mariner
Reprints:

[Plague of the Poisoned Jewelry] (Table of Contents)

Whizzer / comic story / 12 pages (report information)

Script:
Stan Lee (signed)
Pencils:
Paul Reinman (signed)
Inks:
Paul Reinman (signed)
Colors:
Jerron Quality Color
Letters:
?
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Genre:
superhero
Characters:
Whizzer [Robert Frank]; V: Lens; Spike; Paul Smythe
Reprints:

Unsolved Mysteries (Table of Contents)

comic story / 1 page (report information)

Script:
?
Pencils:
?
Inks:
?
Colors:
Jerron Quality Color
Letters:
?
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Reprints:

The Ghost Fleet (Table of Contents)

Sub-Mariner / comic story / 12 pages (report information)

Script:
?
Pencils:
Allen Simon ?
Inks:
Allen Simon ?
Colors:
Jerron Quality Color
Letters:
?
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Genre:
superhero
Characters:
Sub-Mariner [Namor]; Count Von Buckner
Reprints:

The New Mystic Comics is Here! (Table of Contents)

promo (ad from the publisher) / 1 page (report information)

Script:
?
Pencils:
?
Inks:
?
Letters:
?
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Reprints:

Indexer Notes

Ad for Mystic Comics #6.

[Young Allies Comics #1] (Table of Contents)

Young Allies / promo (ad from the publisher) / 1 page (report information)

Script:
?
Pencils:
Jack Kirby
Inks:
Joe Simon
Colors:
Jerron Quality Color
Letters:
?
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Genre:
Superhero
Characters:
Young Allies
Reprints:

Indexer Notes

Ad for Young Allies Comics #1.

[All-Winners Comics #3] (Table of Contents)

Human Torch; Captain America; Sub-Mariner; Whizzer; Destroyer / cover reprint (on interior page) / 1 page (report information)

Script:
?
Pencils:
?
Inks:
?
Colors:
Jerron Quality Color
Letters:
?
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Genre:
superhero
Characters:
Destroyer; Human Torch; Captain America; Whizzer; Sub-Mariner [Namor]; Bucky; Toro
Reprints:

Contents (Table of Contents)

table of contents / 1 page (report information)

Script:
?
Pencils:
? (illos)
Inks:
? (illos)
Letters:
typeset
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Characters:
Toro; Human Torch; Captain America; Whizzer; Sub-Mariner; Destroyer
Reprints:

The Case of the Black Dragon Society (Table of Contents)

Human Torch / comic story / 12 pages (report information)

Script:
Carl Burgos ?
Pencils:
Carl Burgos ?
Inks:
Carl Burgos ?; Harry Sahle ?
Colors:
Jerron Quality Color
Letters:
?
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Genre:
superhero
Characters:
Human Torch [Jim Hammond]; Toro [Thomas Raymond]; Howard Smith; Micka
Reprints:

The Canvas of Doom! (Table of Contents)

Captain America / comic story / 12 pages (report information)

Script:
Stan Lee [as S.T. Anley] (signed)
Pencils:
Al Avison (signed)
Inks:
Al Avison (signed)
Colors:
Jerron Quality Color
Letters:
?
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Genre:
superhero
Characters:
Captain America [Steve Rogers]; Bucky [James Barnes]; Major Collins; Artist [Colonel Rand]
Reprints:

Whee-eee Boom! (Table of Contents)

promo (ad from the publisher) / 1 page (report information)

Script:
?
Pencils:
?
Inks:
?
Colors:
Jerron Quality Color
Letters:
?
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Characters:
Sub-Mariner; Human Torch; Toro; Vision; Terry Vance; Jimmy Jupiter
Reprints:

Terror Prison (Table of Contents)

Whizzer / comic story / 12 pages (report information)

Script:
Stan Lee [as Neel Nats] (signed)
Pencils:
Mike Sekowsky (signed)
Inks:
George Klein (signed)
Colors:
Jerron Quality Color
Letters:
?
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Genre:
superhero
Characters:
Whizzer [Robert Frank]; Pedro Castello; Big Sam; Vic Rommdo
Reprints:

Jungle Drums (Table of Contents)

text story / 1.75 pages (report information)

Script:
?
Letters:
typeset
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Characters:
Greg Lamare; Carson Wolf; Obu
Reprints:

[no title indexed] (Table of Contents)

statement of ownership / 0.25 page (report information)

Script:
?
Letters:
typeset

Reprints:

Indexer Notes

Lists Abraham Goodman as Business Manager and Martin Goodman as Managing Editor.

The Ship of Horrors (Table of Contents)

Sub-Mariner / comic story / 12 pages (report information)

Script:
Bill Everett
Pencils:
Bill Everett (signed)
Inks:
Bill Everett (signed)
Colors:
Jerron Quality Color
Letters:
?
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Genre:
superhero
Characters:
Sub-Mariner [Namor]; Lance Johnson; Cecilia Johnson; Daglio
Reprints:

The Surprise Success of the Century! (Table of Contents)

promo (ad from the publisher) / 1 page (report information)

Script:
?
Pencils:
?
Inks:
?
Colors:
?
Letters:
?
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Reprints:

Indexer Notes

Ad for Young Allies #2.

The Secret Tunnel of Death! (Table of Contents)

Destroyer / comic story / 12 pages (report information)

Script:
Stan Lee
Pencils:
Chad Grothkopf ?; John Forte ?
Inks:
Chad Grothkopf ?
Colors:
Jerron Quality Color
Letters:
?
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Genre:
superhero
Characters:
Destroyer [Keen Marlow]; Florence Von Banger; Doctor Dragon
Reprints:

[As Powerful as it's Name!] (Table of Contents)

promo (ad from the publisher) / 1 page (report information)

Script:
?
Pencils:
?
Inks:
?
Letters:
?
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Reprints:

Indexer Notes

Ad for USA Comics #3.

[All-Winners Comics #4] (Table of Contents)

Human Torch; Captain America; Sub-Mariner; Whizzer; Destroyer / cover reprint (on interior page) / 1 page (report information)

Script:
?
Pencils:
Al Avison (signed)
Inks:
Al Avison (signed)
Colors:
Jerron Quality Color
Letters:
?
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Genre:
superhero
Characters:
Whizzer; Human Torch; Bucky; Captain America; Sub-Mariner; Toro; Destroyer
Reprints:

[Contents] (Table of Contents)

table of contents / 1 page (report information)

Pencils:
?
Inks:
?
Letters:
typeset
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Characters:
Human Torch; Toro; Whizzer; Destroyer; Captain America; Bucky; Sub-Mariner
Reprints:

The Terror of the Slimy Japs! (Table of Contents)

Human Torch / comic story / 12 pages (report information)

Script:
Carl Burgos
Pencils:
Carl Burgos (signed)
Inks:
Carl Burgos
Colors:
Jerron Quality Color
Letters:
?
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Genre:
superhero
Characters:
Human Torch [Jim Hammond]; Toro [Thomas Raymond]; Moppino
Reprints:

Don't Delay Another Second! (Table of Contents)

Captain America; Sentinels of Liberty / advertisement / 1 page (report information)

Script:
?
Pencils:
?
Inks:
?
Colors:
Jerron Quality Color
Letters:
?
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Characters:
Captain America
Reprints:

Indexer Notes

Ad promoting membership of the Sentinels of Liberty.

The Sorcerer's Sinister Secret! (Table of Contents)

Captain America / comic story / 12 pages (report information)

Script:
Stan Lee
Pencils:
Al Avison
Inks:
George Klein ?
Colors:
Jerron Quality Color
Letters:
?
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Genre:
superhero
Characters:
Captain America [Steve Rogers]; Bucky [James Barnes]; Sergeant Duffy
Reprints:

[Crime on the Rampage!] (Table of Contents)

Whizzer / comic story / 12 pages (report information)

Script:
Stan Lee ?
Pencils:
Howard James [as Howard Johns] (signed)
Inks:
Howard James [as Howard Johns] (signed)
Colors:
Jerron Quality Color
Letters:
?
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Genre:
superhero
Characters:
Whizzer [Robert Frank]; Leet Brannis
Reprints:

Miser's Gold! (Table of Contents)

text story / 2 pages (report information)

Script:
?
Letters:
typeset
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Characters:
Jack Carson; Bill Carson; Silas Henry; Meanie McGee; Spot
Reprints:

The Sub-Mariner... Combats the Sinister Horde! (Table of Contents)

Sub-Mariner / comic story / 12 pages (report information)

Script:
Bill Everett ?
Pencils:
Bill Everett (signed)
Inks:
Bill Everett; Carl Pfeufer ?
Colors:
Jerron Quality Color
Letters:
?
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Genre:
superhero
Characters:
Sub-Mariner [Namor]; Doctor Felix Sak
Reprints:

["We don't wish you any harm, but you'll die laughing!"] (Table of Contents)

promo (ad from the publisher) / 1 page (report information)

Script:
Stan Lee [as Lee] (signed)
Pencils:
Bill King [as King] (signed)
Inks:
Bill King [as King] (signed)
Colors:
Jerron Quality Color
Letters:
?
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Reprints:

Indexer Notes

Promo for Joker Comics #2.

Lee and King signed this piece and are, most likely, two separate people. Bill King did such house ads from 1941-43 and Stan Lee wrote such ads during the same years. Added by Craig Delich 2013-7-5.

[Death to the Nazi Scourge!] (Table of Contents)

Destroyer / comic story / 12 pages (report information)

Script:
?
Pencils:
Al Gabriele ?
Inks:
?
Colors:
Jerron Quality Color
Letters:
?
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Genre:
superhero
Characters:
Destroyer [Keen Marlow]; Florence Von Banger; Pastor Muller; Heinrich Bungler
Reprints:

Back Again! (Table of Contents)

Young Allies / promo (ad from the publisher) / 1 page (report information)

Script:
Stan Lee [as Lee] (signed)
Pencils:
Bill King [as King] (signed)
Inks:
Bill King [as King] (signed)
Letters:
typeset
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Genre:
superhero
Characters:
Young Allies [Tubby; Jeff; Bucky; Toro; Knuckles; White Wash]
Reprints:

Indexer Notes

Promo for Young Allies #3.

Lee and King signed this piece and are, most likely, two separate people. Bill King did such house ads from 1941-43 and Stan Lee wrote such ads during the same years. Added by Craig Delich 2013-7-5.

[Two House Ads] (Table of Contents)

Captain America / promo (ad from the publisher) / 1 page (report information)

Script:
?
Pencils:
?
Inks:
?
Letters:
?

Genre:
superhero
Characters:
Captain America; Human Torch; Toro; Sub-Mariner; Bucky; Black Marvel; Angel

Indexer Notes

Two house ads, one for All-Aces Comics (a precursor to All-Winners that never made it past the drawing board and was renamed All-Winners Comics) and one for All-Winners Comics #1. Source(s) unknown.

[Backcover] (Table of Contents)

illustration / 1 page (report information)

Pencils:
Alex Schomburg; Al Avison; ?
Inks:
Alex Schomburg; Al Avison; ?
Colors:
Jerron Quality Color
Letters:
?
Editing:
Stan Lee (original)

Genre:
superhero
Reprints:
Editing

Table of Contents

  1. 0. [no title indexed]
    Whizzer; Human Torch; Bucky; Captain America; Sub-Mariner; Toro; Destroyer
  2. 1. All Winners
    Whizzer; Human Torch; Bucky; Captain America; Sub-Mariner; Toro; Destroyer
  3. 2. Marvel Masterworks Credits/Contents
  4. 3. Introduction
  5. 4. [All-Winners Comics #1]
    Human Torch; Angel; Captain America; Sub-Mariner; Black Marvel
  6. 5. All Winners Vol.1, No.1 Contents
  7. 6. Carnival of Fiends
    Human Torch
  8. 7. The Order of the Hood
    Black Marvel
  9. 8. The Case of the Hollow Men
    Captain America
  10. 9. You Can't Beat the Best!
    Captain America; Human Torch
  11. 10. All Winners
    Angel; Black Marvel; Human Torch; Captain America; Sub-Mariner
  12. 11. The Sub-Mariner
    Sub-Mariner
  13. 12. The Case of the Mad Gargoyle
    Angel
  14. 13. Captain America Wants You
    Captain America
  15. 14. [All-Winners Comics #2]
    Human Torch; Captain America; Sub-Mariner
  16. 15. [Captain America Comics]
    Captain America
  17. 16. Carnival of Death!
    Human Torch
  18. 17. The Strange Case of the Malay Idol
    Captain America
  19. 18. Hold Your Breath!
  20. 19. Bombs of Doom!
    Destroyer
  21. 20. Winners All
  22. 21. [Plague of the Poisoned Jewelry]
    Whizzer
  23. 22. Unsolved Mysteries
  24. 23. The Ghost Fleet
    Sub-Mariner
  25. 24. The New Mystic Comics is Here!
  26. 25. [Young Allies Comics #1]
    Young Allies
  27. 26. [All-Winners Comics #3]
    Human Torch; Captain America; Sub-Mariner; Whizzer; Destroyer
  28. 27. Contents
  29. 28. The Case of the Black Dragon Society
    Human Torch
  30. 29. The Canvas of Doom!
    Captain America
  31. 30. Whee-eee Boom!
  32. 31. Terror Prison
    Whizzer
  33. 32. Jungle Drums
  34. 33. [no title indexed]
  35. 34. The Ship of Horrors
    Sub-Mariner
  36. 35. The Surprise Success of the Century!
  37. 36. The Secret Tunnel of Death!
    Destroyer
  38. 37. [As Powerful as it's Name!]
  39. 38. [All-Winners Comics #4]
    Human Torch; Captain America; Sub-Mariner; Whizzer; Destroyer
  40. 39. [Contents]
  41. 40. The Terror of the Slimy Japs!
    Human Torch
  42. 41. Don't Delay Another Second!
    Captain America; Sentinels of Liberty
  43. 42. The Sorcerer's Sinister Secret!
    Captain America
  44. 43. [Crime on the Rampage!]
    Whizzer
  45. 44. Miser's Gold!
  46. 45. The Sub-Mariner... Combats the Sinister Horde!
    Sub-Mariner
  47. 46. ["We don't wish you any harm, but you'll die laughing!"]
  48. 47. [Death to the Nazi Scourge!]
    Destroyer
  49. 48. Back Again!
    Young Allies
  50. 49. [Two House Ads]
    Captain America
  51. 50. [Backcover]
This issue was most recently modified by:
  • Ramon Schenk
  • Craig Delich
  • Jim Van Dore
  • Steve Dasinger
Issues in this series have been indexed by:
  • Ramon Schenk